Applying Push and Pull Theory to Determine Domestic Visitors’ Tourism Motivations




Push-pull theory, Motivation tourism, Vietnam Central Highlands


The purpose of the study was to determine the motivations driving domestic tourists’ travel decisions to Vietnam’s Central Highlands. These motivations are categorized as originating from within the tourists themselves (push) and as being shaped by the attractiveness and external attributes of the tourist destination in the Central Highlands (pull). Additionally, the study aimed to examine how demographic factors such as gender and age influence these motives. To conduct this research, the authors gathered relevant studies and expert opinions to construct a research model. A total of 745 visitors were surveyed over a period of more than two months. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using two tools: SPSS and AMOS. The findings indicated that three factors impact push motivation: personal factors, escapism, and knowledge and cultural experiences. Furthermore, three elements influence pull motivation: destination information and accessibility, the destination’s unique image, and personal factors. Gender and age exhibited significant effects on these aspects at various levels, except for males, who had no influence on the escapism factor. These findings provide valuable insights for the Central Highlands tourism sector, enabling tourism managers and stakeholders to adjust their services and marketing strategies to better cater to the preferences and demands of domestic visitors. Moreover, the outcomes of this study could be applied to other regions with similarities, such as the Northwest region of Vietnam, the mountainous areas of the central provinces of Vietnam (challenging regions with diverse ethnic minorities), or analogous areas worldwide.


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Author Biographies

Lang Ngoc Duong, VNU Hanoi University of Social Sciences and Humanities and Yersin University of Dalat, Vietnam

Lang Duong Ngoc is a PhD student in the field of tourism at the University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University (Hanoi). Currently, he serves as the associate dean in charge of the Faculty of Tourism at Yersin University in Da Lat, Vietnam. His primary research areas encompass community-based tourism, sustainable tourism development, destination management, and consumer behavior (including motivations, demands, psychology, etc.). His predominant research focus in recent years has been on Da Lat city and the Central Highlands region of Vietnam. In the near future, he intends to extend his studies to other areas within Vietnam and around the world.

Long Hong Pham, VNU Hanoi University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam

Long Pham Hong is an Associate Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Tourism Studies, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University (Hanoi). He is also an adjunct lecturer at Rikkyo University, Japan. He graduated from the Vietnam National University (Vietnam), the University of Utara (Malaysia), and holds a Ph.D. from the Rikkyo University in Japan. His research areas include ecotourism, community-based tourism, sustainable tourism development, and tourism policies and governance in Southeast Asia. He is a leading consultant in sustainable tourism, community-based tourism, and ecotourism in protected areas in Vietnam for international organizations such as the British Council Vietnam, KOICA, GIZ, UNDP, UNESCO, USAID, ILO, and JICA. Long Pham has recently received a research grant from the National Foundation for Science and Technology (NAFOSTED), Vietnam, on the topic of value co-creation and destination brand equity. He is a senior policy advisor in tourism planning and development in Vietnam.

Thao Thi Phuong Hoang, Yersin University of Dalat, Vietnam

Thao Hoang Thi Phuong is a third-year student in the International Ph.D. in Regional Development Program at the University of Pécs, Hungary. She has been working as a lecturer at the Tourism Department of Yersin University since 2007. Her research interests are tourism development and regional economics and policies. She has publications in some journals related to tourism economics and development.




How to Cite

Duong, L. N., Pham, L. H., & Hoang, T. T. P. (2023). Applying Push and Pull Theory to Determine Domestic Visitors’ Tourism Motivations. Journal of Tourism and Services, 14(27), 136–160.