Digital Literacy and Digital Transformation Activities of Service and Manufacturing SMEs




Digital literacy of the workforce, firms' digital literacy activities for their employees, and firms' stages in the digitalization process are some of the major concerns of SMEs in their digitalization process. Firms that take effective actions for those issues can reduce their concerns in their digital transformation. However, SMEs' digital transformation and digital literacy activities might differ depending on firm-level characteristics. This paper investigates whether SMEs' dynamic capabilities differ depending on their firm-level characteristics, such as firm size and sector. This paper considers digital transformation, digital literacy of workers, and digital literacy activities of SMEs as dynamic capabilities since those activities are included and identified in Resource-Based View (RBV) as dynamic capabilities. The research team employs a telephone survey to collect data. Moreover, the researchers apply purposive sampling techniques to generate research samples. The researchers perform Chi-square test and ANOVA analyses to investigate the differences in 330 small-large, manufacturing, and service SMEs' dynamic capabilities. According to the results, while the digital transformation stages of SMEs do not differ depending on their sector and size, there are significant differences between the digital literacy activities of small-large and manufacturing-service SMEs. They indicate similarities regarding concerns of small-large SMEs for their workers' digital literacy. However, compared to manufacturing SMEs, service firms indicate greater interest in their workers' digital literacy. Country-specific, firm-specific, sector-specific, and executive-specific factors, including market structure, level of financial assets, close interactions with customers, education level, and responsibilities of firm executives, respectively, might explain those results.


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Author Biographies

Vladimír Krajčík, European Centre for Business Research, Pan-European University, Prague, Czech Republic


Vladimír Krajčík is an associace professor at Pan-European University, Prague. He has an MS in mathematical science from Palackeho University in Olomouc and an MS in information science from Palackeho University in Olomouc. In addition, he has a Ph.D. degree in Informational Management from VŠB – Technical  University Ostrava, Faculty of Economics. He was awarded the title of Associate Professor in System Engineering at the University of Hradec Králové, Faculty of Informatics. He has done many academic studies, including management, IT management, service quality, human resources, leadership, and education. Since 2022, he has been working as the Rector of Pan-European University. He has many articles, conference papers, and book chapters published in international journals, proceedings, and books.

Ota Novotný, Prague University of Economics and Business, Prague, Czech Republic


Ota Novotny works as the Vice-Rector at the University of Economics and Business, Prague, the Czech Republic. He received his Ph.D. in the measurement of information systems from the University of Economics, Prague. His main research field concentrates on data analytics, IS/ICT sector performance, and IS/ICT services measurement. He has also been working as an independent consultant in a number of projects connected with his research field since 2000. He is a co-author of ten books and author and co-author of several textbooks, conference papers, and journal articles.

Mehmet Civelek, European Centre for Business Research, Pan-European University, Prague, Czech Republic


Mehmet Civelek works as a senior researcher at European Centre for Business Research of Pan-European University. He received his Ph.D. in the Credit Risk Management of SMEs from Tomas Bata University, Zlin, Czechia. His main research fields are the Financing and Marketing activities of SMEs. He has worked on many research projects in Czechia, Slovakia, and the Netherlands. He is an author and co-author of many articles that have been published in quality journals that are indexed in WoS and Scopus.

Svetlana Semrádová Zvolánková, European Centre for Business Research, Pan-European University, Prague, Czech Republic


Světlana Semrádová Zvolánková is an advocate, managing director, and sole shareholder of AK Zvolánková, a member of the Controlling Council of the Czech Bar Association, Examination Commissioner for Civil, Family, and Labour Law, member of the Disputes Committee of the Minister for the Environment. Co-author of the publication Real Estate Law in Practice CH Beck. Graduate of the Faculty of Law of Charles University in Prague, a graduate of the Faculty of Business Administration and Economics of the Czech University of Life Sciences.




How to Cite

Krajčík, V., Novotný, O., Civelek, M., & Semrádová Zvolánková, S. (2023). Digital Literacy and Digital Transformation Activities of Service and Manufacturing SMEs. Journal of Tourism and Services, 14(26), 242–262.