Journal of Tourism and Services <p>Journal of Tourism and Services, established September 17, 2010, is an international reviewed scientific research journal, published by the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP in cooperation with the following partners:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Faculty of Economics and Tourism, Croatia</li> <li class="show">School of Business and Administration of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal</li> <li class="show">Szent István University, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Hungary</li> <li class="show">Pan-European University, Faculty of Business, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li>Pan-European University, Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Law, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">University of Debrecen Faculty of Economics and Business, Hungary</li> <li class="show">University of Zilina, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, Slovakia</li> </ul> <p>The journal publishes high-quality scientific papers and essays with a focus on tourism and service industry development. Together with the scientific part and in order to promote the exchange of current and innovative ideas and stimulating debate, the Journal also includes Reviews of Existing Work or Short Essays, Research Notes, and Research and Industry sections to address important topics and advance theoretical knowledge or thinking about key areas of tourism and services and to allow researchers to present initial findings and reflections or problems concerning fieldwork and research in general.</p> <p>All papers are published only in the English language.</p> <p>The Journal is intended for international professionals, academics, and students not only for reading but also as a space for publication and source of information for work. </p> <p>Journal of Tourism and Services is an open-access journal with the CC BY-NC-ND licensing policy which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US <p>Journal of Tourism and Services (ISSN 1804-5650) is published by the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP in cooperation with the following partners:</p> <ul> <li class="show">University College of Business in Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">University of Entrepreneurship and Law, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">School of Business and Administration of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal</li> <li class="show">Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, University of Zilina, Slovakia</li> </ul> <p>The publisher provides free access policy to the Journal of Tourism and Services.</p> (prof. Ing. Aleksandr Ključnikov, Ph.D.) (doc. Ing. Ján Dvorský, Ph.D. - Executive Editor) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Internal and External Communication between Employees of Different Generations: Emerging Problems in Lithuanian, Latvian, and Swedish Tourism Organizations <p>The paper aims to analyze internal and external communication between employees of different generations and emerging problems in Lithuanian, Latvian, and Swedish tourism organizations. The secondary data has been obtained from scientific literature and the primary data from 12 semi-structured interviews conducted in tourism enterprises of the three countries. The survey sampling method used – criterion sampling. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, applying a conventional approach to content analysis using an inductive coding process. The results show both internal and external communication problems of different generations of employees in tourism organizations in Lithuania, Latvia, and Sweden. The qualitative research confirms the cognition in the scientific literature that communication problems are particularly evident between the younger (Generation Z and Generation Y) and older generations (Baby Boomer Generation and Generation X). Based on the study's results, employees of different generations can communicate more effectively in tourism organizations and other organizations with intergenerational employee diversity. The research's added value comprises the matrix of the most effectively applied communication channels and tools recommended for intergenerational employees in a tourism organization, which may be used to improve intergenerational communication.</p> Gita Šakytė-Statnickė, Laurencija Budrytė-Ausiejienė, Ineta Luka, Valerija Drozdova Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Use of Marketing Communication Tools in Tourism in Accommodation Facilities during the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The spread of the infectious disease COVID-19 throughout the world in 2020 caused a global pandemic, which, with subsequent measures, seriously affected the global tourism industry. The main purpose of the research study was to identify and analyse the use of marketing communication tools in tourism in accommodation facilities in the Czech Republic during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper adds to the existing literature by offering a better understanding of the link between the effectiveness of marketing communication tools within the marketing strategy and the financial losses of the hotel sector. As part of the research, a total of 140 controlled, structured interviews were conducted with managers of selected accommodation facilities, in which the scope and primary forms of use of marketing communication tools during the COVID-19 pandemic were investigated. Research objectives were verified through research questions and hypotheses. The main findings of the research revealed that more than half of the monitored accommodation establishments in the Czech Republic did not change their promotion strategy during the pandemic. In contrast, almost 13% of the accommodation establishments surveyed did not use any tools to communicate with the customer. The research also showed that marketing communication of accommodation facilities takes place mainly in the form of websites and social media, while the most effective communication is via social networks. Therefore, the authors recommend professional associations operating in tourism and hospitality focus their educational activities on the possibilities of using innovative marketing communication tools to communicate with customers. The research was carried out for the requirements and needs of society and practice in connection with the effects of the pandemic crisis so that it was possible to communicate more effectively with the customer segment in the tourism sector.</p> Marcel Lincényi, Ivana Bulanda Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Clusterization in Tourism Development Level's Assessment of Regions: Example of Ukraine <p>Tourism development is uneven, which is related to the level of socio-economic development of territories, peculiarities of historical and cultural processes, resource provision, etc., which determines the need to study the structure of the tourist market based on spatial polarization based on statistical methods. The study aims to identify disparities in tourism development in Ukraine's regions and to group them according to indicators that characterize tourism's development level. To solve the problem, the authors used a modified cluster analysis method. The article presents the author's approach, which, unlike the existing ones, allows taking into account clarifying weighting factors and corrective penalty functions for each indicator to minimize probabilistic influences when determining the distance between objects. The uneven development of the tourism sector in the regions of Ukraine was revealed. As a result, six clusters were distinguished based on indicators of tourism development in the regions of Ukraine as of 2020, and the peculiarities within each cluster were found. State authorities can use the research results to ensure the comprehensive development of territories by forming effective regional tourism strategies and promoting the development of the most promising tourism destinations and products.</p> Nestor Shpak, Ihor Kulyniak, Ihor Novakivskyi, Ihor Oleksiv Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Predicting Tourist Revisit Intention by Applying the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour and Cognitive Dissonance Theory <p>The primary aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of the decision-making cycle of Chinese and Japanese tourists by testing the hypothesis via an extended model of goal-directed behavior. This study was also aimed at extending the concept of the goal-direct model and cognitive dissonance theory by examining the revisit intention for tourism. These two countries represent more than half of the tourism market in Korea. Despite the huge market potential of Chinese and Japanese tourists, relatively little study has been founded on predicting the revisit intention of inbounded tourists. A survey material was developed by adapting measures used in previous studies that assessed the push factor, pull factor, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, anticipated emotion, desire, cognitive dissonance, and revisit intention. Note that 580 cases were on-site surveyed as popular tourist destinations in Seoul, South Korea. The 545 cases were analyzed for the final results. Statistical analysis was conducted through demographic analysis, Confirmatory factor analysis, and SEM (Structural Equation Model) analyses. This study found that the decision to go to Korea is a sound, enthusiastic, and delicate choice measured by the variable of the MGB. Results likewise showed that the theory could be extended to incorporate the impact of inbound visitors' perception of cognitive dissonance. This study is to recognize the decision-making process influencing the revisit intention of Chinese and Japanese tourists and draw academic and practical implications from the difference of the impact on each element.</p> Seungmin Nam Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Discount or Prestige: E-reputation, Compatibility, and Continued Mobile Apps Usage Intention of Low-Cost Carriers <p>In low-cost carrier (LCC) businesses, LCCs have developed cabin design and production services that are different from the available airlines to compete for routes in certain regions. The LCC reduces operating costs. Its operation mode has quickly robbed ordinary airlines of a market, and its business model is also a concern for academia and the industry. This study aims to explain how low-cost mobile carrier apps can enhance decision-making during shopping with an LCC. Stratified sampling was used for data collection in this study, which included individuals who had experience using LCCs and utilized LCC mobile apps; 868 participants completed the surveys, and their data were considered for analysis. We then evaluated our hypotheses using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings of this study offer some critical implications for the design of mobile applications and results to succeed in LCC business endeavors: the mobile application's interface design can be personalized and display things that are the user interface for passengers while reflecting lifestyles and preferences that appeal to them, to increase their willingness to continue using the application. Moreover, LCCs can adjust their competitive market strategies by implementing mobile applications. This study is based on the operation of LCCs, presents a continued usage mobile device application model, and provides strategic practice guidelines and academic insights.</p> Kuang-Yu Chang, Edward C. S. Ku Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Can Virtual Reality Become an Instrument in Favor of Territory Economy and Sustainability? <p>The study aims to identify how virtual reality technology can help protect and conserve flora and fauna in national parks and other environmental settings. To this end, the literature published in the Scopus database is examined. A Systematic Literature Review methodology from 2018 to 2022 and an Empirical Research (survey) applied to tourism in natural areas, mainly national parks, have been proposed. Virtual reality technology is particularly useful as a complement or alternative to visiting national parks. The main results indicate that, currently, daily life confronts us with stressful situations that can be mitigated through ecotourism, as well as virtual reality applications, such as games and videos, which interactively inform about the species of flora and fauna present in the park visited. This helps in the conservation and protection of endangered species, the conservation of the forest, as well as archaeological heritage sites present in these natural parks. The development and implementation of this technology varies from one context to another. It is beneficial for people with some kind of disability or for the physical effort involved in long walks, even on steep terrain, and sometimes it improves the conditions of access to the national park and the dangers related to such an exciting adventure.</p> José A. Folgado-Fernández, Mario Rojas-Sánchez, Pedro. R. Palos-Sánchez, Amparo G. Casablanca-Peña Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Influence of the Quality of Institutions on Tourism in the EU Countries <p>The present study aims to investigate the effect of the quality of institutions on tourism development in a panel of 27 countries from the European Union for the period of 2008-2021. The number of arrivals and employees in tourism measures tourism development. The control variables used, which also represent the determinants of tourism, are GDP growth rate per capita, inflation, higher education, quality of the environment, and trade. Quality of institutions indexes are constructed based on indicators of government effectiveness, political stability, regulatory quality, the rule of law, and voice and accountability. To estimate the impact of selected determinants in tourism development, we used the Generalized method of the moments-GMM model. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that there is a positive connection between the quality of institutions and tourism. The results of this research should provide insight into the most important determinants of management and institutions and explain their influence on events in tourism. All of the above knowledge should be of interest to the management bodies in charge of creating national development strategies. The contribution of this research is reflected in the clarification of the importance of institutions' quality and monitoring. Previous research on this topic is generally limited to specific tourist regions or is based on smaller indicators. This paper covers the area of the European Union, with different stages of development and share in tourist traffic.</p> Fejzula Beha Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Do Travel and Tourism Competitiveness determine International Tourism Inbound Receipts? A Quantile Regression Model for 125 Countries <p>Tourism is one of the sectors of the economy most affected by the situation caused by the spread of COVID-19. For the re-growth of international tourism competitiveness, it is important to know the main determinants affecting tourism performance, specifically international tourism inbound receipts (<em>ITIR</em>). This paper aims to find out whether a country's <em>ITIR</em> is determined by travel and tourism gross domestic product (GDP) and travel and tourism competitiveness measured by the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (<em>TTCI</em>). The data was obtained from the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report from 2019. The proposed new model for 125 countries is specific because we consider conditional quantiles of the dependent variable. The results of a quantile regression determined that individual percentiles of the <em>ITIR</em> are more affected by travel and tourism GDP and <em>TTCI</em> than other percentiles of the <em>ITIR</em>, which was then reflected in the changes of regression coefficients. Considering the findings of this paper, it is possible to implement competitive destination policy not only for the specific geographical cluster, as in the existing literature, but also for groups of countries created according to the affiliation to selected quantiles. This study significantly contributes to the theory and empirical evidence of the influence of tourism competitiveness when modeling tourism performance. Moreover, even though existing studies encourage quantile regression usage in tourism research, this paper appears to be original in determining the variables entering the analysis (<em>ITIR</em>, <em>TTCI</em>, travel, and tourism GDP).</p> Petra Vašaničová, Sylvia Jenčová, Dana Kiseľáková, Ľubomír Nebeský Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Role of Family and Survival Strategies of Micro-Family Food Business during COVID-19 Pandemic <p>This study aimed to investigate the challenges faced, and strategies adopted by micro-family food businesses (MFFB) in Malaysia and examine the family's role in managing such businesses during the COVID-19 crisis. A qualitative research approach was employed, using semi-structured interviews with MFFB owners. The interviews ceased after six participants, ensuring data saturation and the interpreted data's trustworthiness is explained. The findings revealed that MFFB faced multiple challenges, including a drop in sales, business closure, financial instability, and pressure on fixed costs. Besides, this research captured several unique survival strategies adopted by the MFFB owners, such as generosity towards customers, changes in operation, online advertisements, customer satisfaction surveys, maintaining food quality and prices, initiating takeaway orders, and collaboration with food aggregators. The results indicate that task management, responsibility, and reliance are essential to family-owned businesses as significant business strategies. It implies that family relationships play a significant role in the business's direction and business survival; future directions might compare the results to a larger business capacity. This study sheds light on the role of families in managing MFFB during the COVID-19 pandemic and provides practical implications for policymakers, business owners, and practitioners to support MFFB in overcoming challenges during unexpected adversity. By better understanding the challenges faced and strategies adopted by MFFB, it is anticipated to gain greater insight into how the Malaysian food business can become more resilient in the future.</p> Ana Batrisyia Azman, Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Innovation Mechanism in the Hospitality Industry: A Mediated-Moderated Model <p>This study examines the relationship between empowered leadership (EL), intrinsic motivation (IM), job complexity (JC), and innovative employee behavior (EIB) in the hospitality industry. The study specifically investigates how EL affects EIB and how IM mediates this connection. Furthermore, this study explores the moderating impact of JC on the direct interconnected linkages between EL, IM, and EIB. Our sample comprises 506 employee-supervisor dyads from 45 five-star hotels in the Middle East, representing a variety of international hotel chains. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the study finds that EL significantly impacts EIB, which IM subsequently influences. Additionally, we discover that IM acts as a mediator for EL and EIB. Moreover, we find that JC has a moderating impact on the strength of these relationships. Our findings have both theoretical and practical implications for hotel managers and researchers interested in fostering their subordinates' IM and promoting their innovation. We also emphasize the importance of JC in positively influencing the strength of these relationships in the hotel industry. Managers can develop strategies to increase their businesses' competitiveness in this dynamic and competitive sector by better understanding the factors that drive EIB.</p> Gamal Sayed Ahmed Khalifa, Abuelhassan Elshazly Abuelhassan, Sawsan Haider Abdullah Khreis, Mohammad Soliman, Md Sazzad Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 MICE Tourism: How the Pandemic Has Changed It <p>COVID-19 has become a real challenge for the tourism sphere. The pandemic hit MICE tourism the hardest, as it is primarily associated with mass business events. Our research aims to understand market expectations and assess the readiness of participants and organizers of MICE events to meet the challenges of modern conditions and the prospects for further development of the MICE industry. If individual trips resumed in August 2020, holding exhibitions, conferences, and congresses has not fully resumed even until now. Even in 2022-2023, some exhibitions and conferences were held online. The active development of online technologies called into question the continued existence of traditional formats for holding exhibition events. In the research, we surveyed the participants of MICE events about their attitudes towards virtual and live events to get feedback on the advantages and disadvantages of different event formats and identify market expectations. Although virtual events have become widespread, aiming to replace traditional live formats of MICE events, the study showed that most respondents are not ready to abandon offline events completely and actively plan to participate in them in the future. At the same time, the younger generation turned out to be more prone to online events. The study showed that the most promising format for MICE events is Hybrid, combining the advantages of virtual and live events.</p> Lyubov Litvinova-Kulikova, Zhannat Aliyeva, Lorant Dénes David Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Promoting Sustainable Tourist Behavior through Promotional Marketing <p>This study aims to investigate the current state of Bhaktapur, Nepal, as a tourist destination and how promotional marketing strategies can be used to increase the number of tourists visiting the area. The research uses the AIDA model to analyze Bhaktapur's promotional marketing as a tourist destination. 282 tourists were surveyed through the Kobo Toolbox app to gather information about their demographics and travel profiles. The data was analyzed using SPSS and SEM to find variations in groups and predict the impact of promotional marketing on sustainable tourism demand in Bhaktapur. The findings indicate that utilizing a range of promotional marketing strategies, such as social media, and targeting different demographic groups can be effective in attracting tourists and highlight the significance of tourism as a key source of foreign exchange revenue for Nepal and suggests that promoting Bhaktapur as a tourist destination can contribute to the country's economic growth. This study contributes to the rising interest in determining the Internet's significance as a commercial tool in the tourist industry. Internet is currently the primary method for hotels and other service-based enterprises to communicate with their clients. Thus, this study aims to fill a vacuum in the literature by demonstrating how to leverage the Internet and social media as part of a marketing strategy to build a sustained demand among visitors concerned with social concerns and the environment.</p> Niranjan Devkota , Krzysztof Gajdka, Roshan Siwakoti , Monika Klimova, Krishna Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Digital Literacy and Digital Transformation Activities of Service and Manufacturing SMEs <p>Digital literacy of the workforce, firms' digital literacy activities for their employees, and firms' stages in the digitalization process are some of the major concerns of SMEs in their digitalization process. Firms that take effective actions for those issues can reduce their concerns in their digital transformation. However, SMEs' digital transformation and digital literacy activities might differ depending on firm-level characteristics. This paper investigates whether SMEs' dynamic capabilities differ depending on their firm-level characteristics, such as firm size and sector. This paper considers digital transformation, digital literacy of workers, and digital literacy activities of SMEs as dynamic capabilities since those activities are included and identified in Resource-Based View (RBV) as dynamic capabilities. The research team employs a telephone survey to collect data. Moreover, the researchers apply purposive sampling techniques to generate research samples. The researchers perform Chi-square test and ANOVA analyses to investigate the differences in 330 small-large, manufacturing, and service SMEs' dynamic capabilities. According to the results, while the digital transformation stages of SMEs do not differ depending on their sector and size, there are significant differences between the digital literacy activities of small-large and manufacturing-service SMEs. They indicate similarities regarding concerns of small-large SMEs for their workers' digital literacy. However, compared to manufacturing SMEs, service firms indicate greater interest in their workers' digital literacy. Country-specific, firm-specific, sector-specific, and executive-specific factors, including market structure, level of financial assets, close interactions with customers, education level, and responsibilities of firm executives, respectively, might explain those results.</p> Vladimír Krajčík, Ota Novotný, Mehmet Civelek, Svetlana Semrádová Zvolánková Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Predictors Influencing the Choice of Lodging Option: A Systematic Literature Review of Homestays <p>In the tourism industry, lodging establishments play a crucial role. Each, more and more tourists look outside the typical hotel for their accommodation requirements. One of the fastest-growing segments of the hotel sector is homestays. This research aims to provide a more comprehensive view of the topic by consolidating the factors found in previous studies that lead tourists to select homestays. This study seeks to bring together the different reasons that have been discovered by studies that encourage visitors to choose homestay as a lodging option to gain a more in-depth understanding of the issue. In this research, the authors elected to conduct a review study in the form of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR). Seventy-four papers published between January 2000 and June 2022 were examined. This study examined Emerald, Sage, Elsevier, Wiley Online Library, Scopus, and Taylor &amp; Francis Online databases. The PRISMA flowchart was utilized to conduct a comprehensive view of the topic. The SLR findings reflect that underlining factors like "feeling at home," "personalized service," "safety and security," "real, local touch/desire to engage in local culture," and "budget-friendly" are the primary motivating factors for visitors to choose homestay over other types of accommodation. This study can offer several suggestions to improve tourists' satisfaction with homestays,. Homestay owners, managers, and investors can use this study to create policies, directions, and recommendations for running homestays. Concerning motivations and attribute concerns, this study may give homestay destination marketing managers a more realistic picture of tourist satisfaction.</p> Anup Singh Patwal, Vinay Rana, Vivek Kumar Pathak Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200