Journal of Tourism and Services <p>Journal of Tourism and Services, established September 17, 2010, is an international reviewed scientific research journal, published by the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP in cooperation with the following partners:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Faculty of Economics and Tourism, Croatia</li> <li class="show">School of Business and Administration of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal</li> <li class="show">Szent István University, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Hungary</li> <li class="show">Pan-European University, Faculty of Business, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li>Pan-European University, Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Law, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">University of Debrecen Faculty of Economics and Business, Hungary</li> <li class="show">University of Zilina, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, Slovakia</li> </ul> <p>The journal publishes high-quality scientific papers and essays with a focus on tourism and service industry development. Together with the scientific part and in order to promote the exchange of current and innovative ideas and stimulating debate, the Journal also includes Reviews of Existing Work or Short Essays, Research Notes, and Research and Industry sections to address important topics and advance theoretical knowledge or thinking about key areas of tourism and services and to allow researchers to present initial findings and reflections or problems concerning fieldwork and research in general.</p> <p>All papers are published only in the English language.</p> <p>The Journal is intended for international professionals, academics, and students not only for reading but also as a space for publication and source of information for work. </p> <p>Journal of Tourism and Services is an open-access journal with the CC BY-NC-ND licensing policy which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP en-US Journal of Tourism and Services 1804-5650 <p>Journal of Tourism and Services (ISSN 1804-5650) is published by the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP in cooperation with the following partners:</p> <ul> <li class="show">University College of Business in Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">University of Entrepreneurship and Law, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">School of Business and Administration of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal</li> <li class="show">Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, University of Zilina, Slovakia</li> </ul> <p>The publisher provides free access policy to the Journal of Tourism and Services.</p> Employer Branding in Tourism: How to Recruit, Retain and Motivate Staff <p>A fierce "war for talent" has emerged, particularly in the tourism industry, with labour shortages and high turnover rates. This situation challenges employers to secure strategic competitive advantage through their most vital asset, people. Simultaneously, firms must invest in their human capital to increase their value, heightening the significance of employer branding. This paper hence investigates employer branding and does so in the unique context of family businesses, the dominant form of tourism firms, where employer branding takes on a distinct dimension as the family's influence fuses corporate and familial identities. Extending prior research findings that indicate that labour issues often stem from leadership inadequacies and human resource management shortcomings, this paper aims to comprehensively examine these multifaceted challenges and their relevance in the tourism industry. This study employs a qualitative approach utilizing 28 semi-structured interviews with managers, successors, and HR managers in Tyrol, an established tourism region in Austria and Europe. The results reveal that the integration of family values and qualities, as well as the identity and value-based self-image and brand strategies of a business, are important factors in recruiting and retaining employees. This study contributes to deeper insight into the importance, opportunities, and challenges of employer branding in family-run tourism businesses.</p> Alexander Plaikner Marco Haid Andreas Kallmuenzer Sascha Kraus Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 1 21 10.29036/jots.v14i27.666 Local Governance and Entrepreneurship in Tourism – a Comparative Analysis of Two Tourist Destinations <p>Literature suggests that local governance might encourage the emergence of innovative businesses. Little is known about that relationship in the context of tourism, although literature suggests governance as a way to deal with the problems of tourism destinations. Additionally, studies in entrepreneurship seldom focus on tourism. This study addresses these gaps by exploring the role of local governance in tourism entrepreneurship. The research strategy of the study is qualitative, using focus groups and semi-structured interviews with diverse local and regional stakeholders, from entrepreneurs to policymakers. Two municipalities in the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon serve as case studies. The differences in the entrepreneurial ecosystems of both territories relate to their distinctive stages of development as tourism destinations. Results suggest that the "good governance" model prevails but that a "one size fits all" approach is not helpful. Results also suggest the need for local governance models to evolve into modes of multi-level network governance, incorporating regional interaction and integration; and recognising participation as the key to democratic legitimacy, transparency, and effectiveness of public policies. With multi-level governance, public administrations at different levels of government are responsible for opening the decision-making process to other relevant actors in society. The study's theoretical contribution concerns the need to investigate hybrid governance models for tourism entrepreneurship. For practitioners (i.e., local decision-makers), this study highlights the advantages of flexibility and a multi-level approach to governance.</p> Maria de Lurdes Calisto Teresa Costa Victor Alves Afonso Catarina Nunes Jorge Umbelino Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 22 38 10.29036/jots.v14i27.404 When Central Asian Prefers Langkawi Island: Understanding Luxury Travel Motivations and Behaviour <p>This study investigates luxury tourists’ outbound travel motivation and how it influences their tourism destination selection, satisfaction, and future revisit intention. Two hundred and fifty-six (256) respondents participated in this study. The online survey link was shared using social media platforms where the snowball technique spread the questionnaire links to the respondents that fit the study's inclusion. Partial-Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to test and confirm the study model and hypotheses. Combining two theoretical underpinnings, Maslow’s theory of motivation and push and pull motivations theory, this study’s findings depict two major antecedents of luxury-driven experiences: social value and destination uniqueness. The results demonstrate that luxury tourists’ push and pull travel motivation predictors emerged as significant antecedents for their destination satisfaction and willingness to return. Furthermore, the mediating effect confirms that satisfaction plays a significant mediating role in the pull motivation and revisit intention inter-relationship. The findings of this study provide empirical support for understanding the psychological aspects of luxury travellers while offering insights for destination managers to develop niche marketing strategies for attracting luxury tourists. The present research also provides luxury tourism destination managers with a clear comprehension of the underlying mechanism of the luxury tourists’ loyalty generation process.</p> Norliza Md Zain Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 39 63 10.29036/jots.v14i27.507 Emojis and Users’ Brand Engagement in Instagram. The Case of Eco-Friendly Restaurants <p style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this research is to examine the drivers of followers´ behavioural engagement with eco-friendly restaurants on Instagram. In addition, the present study explores the influence of followers´ behavioural engagement on word of mouth (WOM) and intention to visit the restaurant, paying special attention to the moderating effect of consumers’ attitudes towards the use of emojis in the posts. The research model was tested on 491 female followers of the Instagram account operated by the establishment. Following the validation of measurement scales, the hypotheses are tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) with AMOS software. It was found that behavioural brand engagement was positively affected, with similar intensity, by the perceived enjoyment provided by, and the perceived originality of, brand-generated content posted on Instagram. In addition, behavioural brand engagement was found to drive positive WOM and visiting intentions, and WOM had a significantly higher effect on females who have positive attitudes towards emojis. Brand-generated content (BGC) characteristics (perceived enjoyment and perceived originality) increase followers' brand engagement. Managers should focus on BGC characteristics and the communication style of their messages to strengthen follower-brand relationships. This research can help restaurant owners/managers understand the drivers and outcomes of followers´ behavioural engagement with brands (FBE) on Instagram and the role of emojis on customer behaviours.</p> Estefania Ballester Natalia Rubio Carla Ruiz Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 64 88 10.29036/jots.v14i27.514 Tourism Indicators and Their Differentiated Impact on Sustainable Tourism Development <p>Sustainable tourism is a challenge for current and future generations in an effort to develop it in the spirit of maintaining a balance between its basic pillars: economic, social and environmental. The presented contribution aims to identify the differences of significant social, economic, and environmental indicators with the tourism indicator. The analysis was carried out at the level of NUTS 1 - the Slovak Republic and at the level of NUTS 3 - Prešov self-governing region. In the first phase of the research, 6 significant indicators were identified at the level of the Slovak Republic and at the level of the Prešov self-governing region 5 significant indicators with tourism indicators. Comparison of significant indicators was carried out using torque characteristics of shape, position, variability and through a set of tests - Mann Whitney test, Levene test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The differences between the indicators at the national and regional level were shown to be significant every time, regardless of whether the indicator was identified as significant, primarily in relation to the number of overnight stays at the national or regional level. The documented results point to the heterogeneity of the quality, and also the quantity of social, economic, and environmental indicators with the tourism indicator at the national and regional levels. It can be concluded that the sustainable development of tourism at different levels is conditioned by different indicators. This fact should be considered by the state economic policymakers and other tourism industry entities.</p> Mária Matijová Anna Šenková Tünde Dzurov Vargová Daniela Matušíková Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 89 117 10.29036/jots.v14i27.530 Social Perception and Attitude Towards International Sporting Events of Local Residents <p>Sporting events are central to the world of professional sports, making the acceptance and support of these events critical to their success. Our study aimed to analyse the relationship between opinion formation (support or opposition) and general attitudes toward sporting events in Hungary. And also to explore how attitudes towards sporting events differ from those who do not. To determine the connection and effects of the model, we use Covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling (CB-SEM), while in order to analyse the differences of supporter types we concluded a Cluster analysis. The latent variables of the developed SEM model had high internal consistency and good reliability, while the model had good psychometric properties. The results indicate that attitude has a significantly positive effect on perceived positive impacts of sports events (=0.93), explaining 87% of its variance, while it also has a significantly negative effect on perceptions of negative impacts of sporting events (&gt;=-0.42). In addition, there is a strong direct effect between positive attitudes towards sports events and their positive perception. Through cluster analysis, we identified four significantly distinct groups: "Opponents" (13.5%), "Indifferent" (28.6%), "Rational Supporters" (29.4%), and "Enthusiastic Supporters" (28.6%). Most of the respondents agreed that international sporting events can enhance the image of the host city, promote economic development, and stimulate the local economy. However, perceived negative effects were driven by political reasons, such as government support for sports and lack of information. Therefore, our findings suggest that education and the provision of accurate information can help increase support for similar sporting events.</p> Tünde Máté Attila Kajos Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 118 135 10.29036/jots.v14i27.547 Applying Push and Pull Theory to Determine Domestic Visitors’ Tourism Motivations <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the motivations driving domestic tourists’ travel decisions to Vietnam’s Central Highlands. These motivations are categorized as originating from within the tourists themselves (push) and as being shaped by the attractiveness and external attributes of the tourist destination in the Central Highlands (pull). Additionally, the study aimed to examine how demographic factors such as gender and age influence these motives. To conduct this research, the authors gathered relevant studies and expert opinions to construct a research model. A total of 745 visitors were surveyed over a period of more than two months. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using two tools: SPSS and AMOS. The findings indicated that three factors impact push motivation: personal factors, escapism, and knowledge and cultural experiences. Furthermore, three elements influence pull motivation: destination information and accessibility, the destination’s unique image, and personal factors. Gender and age exhibited significant effects on these aspects at various levels, except for males, who had no influence on the escapism factor. These findings provide valuable insights for the Central Highlands tourism sector, enabling tourism managers and stakeholders to adjust their services and marketing strategies to better cater to the preferences and demands of domestic visitors. Moreover, the outcomes of this study could be applied to other regions with similarities, such as the Northwest region of Vietnam, the mountainous areas of the central provinces of Vietnam (challenging regions with diverse ethnic minorities), or analogous areas worldwide.</p> Lang Ngoc Duong Long Hong Pham Thao Thi Phuong Hoang Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 136 160 10.29036/jots.v14i27.554 Digital Nomads' Willingness to Stay – a Combined Analysis of SEM and fsQCA Results <p>Lisbon is a multicultural city with a business center that hosts major technology companies and professionals in the field, including digital nomads. High demand for tourist accommodation and the arrival of foreigners to work in the country have led to an imbalance between the supply and affordable cost of real estate for residents of the capital. This work aims to survey and determine whether digital nomads in Lisbon intend to settle in the city or are just passing through. To identify the combination of factors that influence digital nomads’ decision-making, we conducted a quantitative study using survey data tested through structural equation modelling and configurational analysis by fsQCA. The results show that while the decision to stay in the city is heavily influenced by community attachment, we found three configurations that reveal distinct patterns of digital nomads’ intention to stay in the city. These results suggest that policymakers need to consider that digital nomads are not a homogeneous group. This study makes an important contribution to the understanding of behavioral intentions and is, to the authors’ knowledge, the first to identify different configurations based on digital nomads’ intentions to stay in a city.</p> Taciane Azevedo Andrade Álvaro Dias Mafalda Patuleia Leandro Pereira Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 161 180 10.29036/jots.v14i27.586 Electronic Word of Mouth, Attitude, Motivation, and Travel Intention in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted individuals to spend more time searching for information on social media channels. Although most countries have entered a new normal, these channels still play a crucial role in people's decisions. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the relationship between electronic word of mouth and the attitude, motivation, and travel intention of potential tourists. To achieve this objective, an online survey has gathered 431 valid responses for analysis. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the relationships between variables in the proposed model. We find evidence to show that eWOM positively affects potential tourists’ travel intentions, while attitude and motivation play positive mediating roles in the effect of eWOM on customers' travel intentions. These results suggest the received information from online reviews, along with optimistic attitudes and motivations, can promote potential tourists’ decisions. Moreover, while eWOM can be a useful source to grasp customers’ demands, it may also spread unfavorable reviews about the destination. Hence, stakeholders should try to well manage eWOM because if eWOM conveys positive messages, it can help boost tourism in the post-coronavirus pandemic. The paper contributes to the current literature by identifying a critical variable affecting customers’ travel intention during the post-pandemic era.</p> Le Thanh Tung Duong Tien Ha My Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 181 196 10.29036/jots.v14i27.603 Exploring the Tourism, Neuro-tourism, and Hospitality Nexus: A Comprehensive Bibliometric Analysis <p>Despite the considerable attention toward tourism and hospitality, neuro-tourism remains largely unexplored within academic investigations. This study is designed to provide bibliometric analysis in tourism, neuro-tourism, and hospitality research using VOSviewer to fill the gap. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework to select relevant papers on the Scopus database between January 2009 and July 2023. Analyzing 971 papers revealed that the UK is the top country in publication (289 papers and 11,391 citations), while Italy was the lowest country on the list (42 papers and 4651 citations). Buhalis, D., was identified as the most influential author, with 18 papers and the highest-cited papers (1833 citations). Furthermore, the strongest pair authors correlation was between Okumus, F. and Rahimi, R., with 468 links, highlighting a significant degree of connection between their respective references. Keywords related to tourism, neuro-tourism, and hospitality include "halal tourism," "urban tourism," "rural tourism," "food tourism," "Islamic hospitality," "hospitality ecosystem," and "neuroscience." “International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management” was the most productive journal (96 papers and 4,312 citations). Furthermore, this journal published the most-cited paper, "An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in hospitality research,” with 687 citations. This is the first study to conduct the bibliometric analysis of tourism, neuro-tourism, and hospitality research; therefore, it will lead to more publications on related subjects by directing the researchers to less studied fields such as neuro-tourism. Additionally, scholarly collaborations may improve the depth of this research.</p> Ahmed H. Alsharif Nor Zafir Md Salleh Lina Pilelienė Shaymah Ahmed Al-Zahrani Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 197 221 10.29036/jots.v14i27.606 Business KPIs Based on Compliance Risk Estimation <p>The issue of KPI selection is urgent for sustainable business organization including the financial sector. There are numerous studies devoted to KPIs; however, the European Central Bank (European Central Bank, 2023) insists on the necessity of revising the methodology to improve it and make it based on risk and behavior aspects. This research is an attempt to meet the new vision of the ECB. The authors develop a new approach to the selected KPIs of financial institutions on the basis of risk indicators. The PLS-SEM method was used to construct and test the model, representing the company's compliance function and considering various risk categories. The significant relationship between compliance procedures and risk factors was confirmed by the constructed model. The study results not only meet the ECB's new approach but also contribute to the scientific area of choosing sustainable indicators for sustainable business. Empirical analyses from the study decisively highlighted a pronounced correlation between strict compliance with the established rules and proficient risk management practices. In tandem with the ECB's guiding principles, the conclusions derived from this research not only complement the existing body of knowledge but also offer a novel perspective on the essence of the KPI selection. Conclusively, this research confirms the significance of risk-aware KPIs in guiding financial entities toward a trajectory of sustained excellence and growth.</p> Olegs Cernisevs Yelena Popova Dmitrijs Cernisevs Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 222 248 10.29036/jots.v14i27.636 Examination of Tourists’ Culinary Experience: Revisiting the Experience Economy in the Case of Hue Cuisine <p>This research aims to examine a scale to measure the culinary experience of tourists through the case of Hue cuisine in Vietnam. It could help address the issue of measurement inconsistency in culinary experience research. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 20 domestic tourists and then through surveys with 433 tourists. Using factor analysis methods, the research revealed that tourists’ culinary experience was measured by a second-order scale encompassing three interrelated dimensions. They included educational experience, escapist experience, and entersthetic experience. This culinary experience scale was found to be reliable, convergent, discriminant, and nomologically valid. The newly developed scale of culinary experience could be utilized in similar tourism contexts where the local food is unique and tasty. In addition, the research enhances tourism professionals' understanding of the significance of tourists' culinary experience. Consequently, they could improve tourists' experiences through a range of activities, such as telling stories about the local food, creating food check-in venues, and organizing local food games or contests. In terms of theoretical contribution, this research enhances the understanding of customer experience in the tourism context by validating a new second-order scale of culinary experience. The research also provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the multi-dimensional, collective, and changing nature of tourists’ culinary experience, using the Experience Economy perspective.</p> Thuy Dieu Thi Hoang Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 249 264 10.29036/jots.v14i27.641 Travellers’ Attitude and Intention towards post Covid-19 Travel: The Moderating Role of Traveller Personality Type <p>COVID-19 has crucially changed the motivations, attitudes, and behaviours of travellers. This study explores the shifts in travel attitudes after the COVID-19 pandemic and how these changes affect the intention for upcoming travels. It investigates the moderating role of the traveller personality in forming the relationships between travel attitude’s antecedents and future travel intention. The study adopts the deductive approach and employs the quantitative method to achieve its aim. It compares the perceptions collected via a questionnaire from random travellers from three countries: UAE, Egypt, and Jordan. PLS-SEM is used for data analysis. It is revealed that protection motivation intentions, destination selection factors, and travel patterns/ arrangements predict travel attitudes post the pandemic. Cautious travellers are highly concerned with protection intentions and destination selection post-epidemic compared with normal travellers. Findings help us understand the shifts in travel attitudes and intentions after the pandemic. Understating the influence of the epidemic on tourists’ attitudes and intention to travel post-pandemic is strongly needed to accelerate tourism recovery and ensure a safe travel environment for tourists. Theoretically, the study responds to the research calls for examining the changes in travel motivations, attitudes, and behaviours. Practically, the study profiles travellers based on their travel personality (i.e., cautious versus normal travellers) and identifies the characteristics of each category. This will help destination marketers and service providers to adopt the relevant strategies to meet the tourists’ needs, expectations and fears in the post-pandemic new normal.</p> Mohamed Abou-Shouk Mohamed Bayoumy Nidal Alzboun Saleh Muhammad Zeki Al-Leheabi Marwa Abdel-Jalil Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 265 282 10.29036/jots.v14i27.647 Sustainability Assessment of Tourism Destinations from the Lens of Green Digital Transformations <p>The rapid expansion of tourist destinations has important environmental, climate change, and socioeconomic impacts on countries. The main objectives of the paper are: to analyze sustainable tourism concepts, indicators, and frameworks of sustainability assessment in tourism; to develop a framework for sustainable tourism assessment of tourist destinations; to apply a developed framework for sustainability assessment of tourism destinations in Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) from the lens of green, digital transformations and boosting social-economic resilience. These are crucial policy pillars due to experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main methods and data applied: several MCDM tools were applied to rank Visegrad countries on the progress achieved in sustainable tourism development. The data on indicators of the EU Tourism Dashboard were applied. The results of the ranking indicated that the best-performing country in terms of sustainable tourism development was Poland, following Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. The main reason for this was the best results in digitalization and social-economic resilience shown by Poland and Hungary. The main policy implications for these countries are linked to the enhancement of environmental impact mitigation policies in tourism. The main contribution of this paper is a sustainability assessment of tourism destinations in Visegrad countries based on policy priorities and the newest available data by applying advanced MCDM tools.</p> Dalia Streimikiene Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 283 298 10.29036/jots.v14i27.651 A Systematic Literature Review on Marine Tourism in Business Management: State of the Art and Future Research Agenda <p>This systematic literature review investigates marine tourism within the scope of business management areas, shedding light on diverse industry dimensions, from environmental impacts to economic valuations. Utilizing the Scopus database and spanning a decade (2012-2022), this research meticulously sifts through an initial bulk of identified articles, ultimately honing in on 37 pertinent papers through a criterion that ensured relevance via aspects like authorship, title, publication year, journal, and citation count. With a structured mapping approach, the research categorizes marine tourism in business management into basic, emerging, motor, and niche themes, revealing critical insights and articulating states of the art in several key facets of marine tourism. Among these are Limited Focus on Sustainable Practices, Under-Explored Technology Utilization, Insufficient Market Segmentation Studies, and Minimal Research on Crisis Management. The study further crafts a future research agenda, considering pivotal domains such as sustainability, technology, market dynamics, crisis management, and community engagement. Serving as a potential cornerstone for forthcoming studies, this research not only maps out future investigations in marine tourism within business management but also highlights themes ripe for deeper, more detailed exploration, thereby enriching the academic vista in marine tourism within the realm of business management.</p> Mochammad Fahlevi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism and Services 2023-12-18 2023-12-18 14 27 299 321 10.29036/jots.v14i27.549