Journal of Tourism and Services 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 doc. Ing. Aleksandr Ključnikov, Ph.D. Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Tourism and Services, established September 17, 2010, is an international reviewed scientific research journal, published by the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP in cooperation with the following partners:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Faculty of Economics and Tourism, Croatia</li> <li class="show">School of Business and Administration of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal</li> <li class="show">Szent István University, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Hungary</li> <li class="show">University College of Business in Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">University of Debrecen Faculty of Economics and Business, Hungary</li> <li class="show">University of Entrepreneurship and Law, Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">University of Zilina, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, Slovakia</li> </ul> <p>The journal publishes high-quality scientific papers and essays with a focus on tourism and service industry development. Together with the scientific part and in order to promote the exchange of current and innovative ideas and stimulating debate, the Journal also includes Reviews of Existing Work or Short Essays, Research Notes, and Research and Industry sections to address important topics and advance theoretical knowledge or thinking about key areas of tourism and services and to allow researchers to present initial findings and reflections or problems concerning fieldwork and research in general.</p> <p>All papers are published only in the English language.</p> <p>The Journal is intended for international professionals, academics, and students not only for reading but also as a space for publication and source of information for work.&nbsp;</p> Understanding of Travel Motivations of Domestic Tourists 2021-04-16T11:28:49+02:00 Oyunchimeg Luvsandavaajav Gantuya Narantuya <p>Domestic tourism plays an essential role in the tourism industry and contributes to the overall economic development. This study aims to investigate the relationship between push and pull travel motivations of domestic tourists, their behavioral intentions, a direct influence of travel motivations on perceived benefit and perceived value of domestic tourists. The paper applies the concept of push and pull factors of travel motivation, perceived benefit, perceived value, and behavioral intention. The study implies a quantitative research method - questionnaire survey targeting domestic tourists in Mongolia between July to September 2019. A total of 1068 returned questionnaires were analyzed using factor analysis, reliability test, regression, path analysis, and SEM. The research result suggests that travel motivations (push and pull factors) were significant constructs of behavioral intentions. Moreover, the research results are significant for tourism practitioners, researchers, and destination managers to understand the motivational factors of domestic tourists, their perceived benefit and value, and behavioral intention. The study outcomes could assist destination planners to develop new products and services or to enhance destination offer and tourist experiences by improving pull factors that include better service quality, various travel activities, ease of accessibility, reasonable pricing, and attractive environment; which latter lead to increase domestic tourist numbers and overall competitiveness of the destination.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Does Social Media Addiction Differ by Personality Traits? A Study on Undergraduate Tourism Students 2021-03-06T08:12:10+01:00 Omer Akgun Tekin Alparslan Abdullah Turhan <p>The potential relationship between social media addiction and personality traits is an essential topic in tourism studies, though it is rarely examined. Thus, this study aims to examine whether undergraduate tourism students are addicted to social media and, if so, the possible relationship between this addiction and their personality traits. The research used the descriptive method, one of the quantitative research methods. The questionnaire technique and the convenience sampling method were preferred to amass the data. Data were collected from 454 undergraduate tourism students and analyzed with the Pearson correlation test by using SPSS 25. This research has revealed that the students' dominant personality trait is agreeableness with a low-level social media addiction. The research has also found a positive relationship between neuroticism personality traits and social media addiction and a negative relationship between personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and social media addiction. The research has revealed that tourism students are dependent on social media. Social media addiction is a type of addiction that harms individuals' personal development and business life. Accordingly, theoretical and practical studies should be carried out to combat this addiction. To this end, it is crucial to develop more sophisticated combating methods according to an individual's personality traits and carry out awareness and training studies in the practical field. The literature has scarcely examined the relationship between undergraduate tourism students' personality traits and social media addiction. Therefore, this study is believed to contribute to filling an important gap in the literature.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Potential Pond Farming in the Context of Tourism 2021-03-02T08:35:37+01:00 Milena Botlíková <p>The article deals with the issue of a specific area of Czech cultural heritage, national and cultural identity, the phenomenon of fishing culture, and its use in the traditions and development of localities and regions in connection with tourism. The article aimed to analyze the motivating factors for visiting fishing events, attitudes towards the fish product, and the links between these factors. Cultural and historical aspects were examined mainly from the point of view of gender stereotypes and age structure, emphasizing the regional specifics of North Moravia and Silesia. 374 respondents were contacted through a questionnaire survey. The basis of the research was based on a methodological approach, quantitative research, and identification of the significance of motivational factors. The relationships between motivational factors were verified by factor analysis, comparison, and visualization performed by correspondence analysis, STATISTICA software. Research has shown that different age groups associate the term "fish" with traditional milestones, especially Christian holidays, and attributes such as Christmas fish, scales, and fish soup. In connection with tourism and cultural traditions, respondents combine fish in order to buy and taste fish dishes and the overall atmosphere. The result also showed that these products are expensive for respondents; if they were more affordable and physically available, consumers would undoubtedly increase their consumption. Research has considerable added value, which stems from the point of view of analysis in the context of cultural heritage and custom. The development of gastronomic tourism associated with fish products realized by various social events is influenced by the approach of consumers to the product and cultural customs. The sectoral synthesis in the region overlaps economically, socially, and environmentally; suppresses social and economic disparities and develops a national identity. Diversification of fishing activities is necessary to avoid risk effects.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services The Impact of the Sharing Economy as an Ecosystem on the Tourism Sector 2021-03-15T16:51:17+01:00 Navickas Valentinas Ieva Petrokė Vaida Bačiulienė Tetiana Vasylieva <p>The authors of the article investigated the sharing economy elements as an ecosystem and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the sharing economy in the tourism sector. Exploring the elements of the sharing economy's ecosystem can help identify the challenges of globalization and lead to exploiting the sharing economy's potential more efficiently in the tourism sector. The study of the impact of the sharing economy as an ecosystem on the tourism sector is also made relevant by the lack of research examining the advantages and disadvantages of sharing economy models. To determine the impact of the sharing economy on the tourism sector, the authors analyzed the scientific literature. An empirical study of business models based on the sharing economy in the tourism sector was carried out. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages were identified of the sharing economy in the tourism sector. The authors' analysis has shown that, despite conflicting views on the impact and importance of the sharing economy in the tourism sector, many experts are optimistic about sharing economy-based models in this sector. Research by the authors of the article shows that sharing economy-based businesses are superior to traditional business models. The sharing economy-based models are preeminent because of more affordable prices for tourists, better satisfaction of individual needs, opportunities to become part of the community, a more comprehensive range of services, better access to tourism services. A better quality of services also highlights the advantages of economy-based businesses. Although the study was conducted in the Lithuanian tourism sector, we can assume that the study data can be unified and applied to analyze similar markets in other countries.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Evaluation of Tourist Decision-Making Process by Eye-Tracking Method – Focused on Methodology Gap and Cross-National Comparison 2021-05-03T11:33:12+02:00 Zdena Lustigova Liběna Jarolímková Jan Žufan <p>The dynamic development of information and communication technologies and online marketing in the hospitality and tourism industry changes customer behavior significantly.. This article presents the research results focused on measuring the visual attention of potential clients while choosing the hotel online. Eye-tracking-based data collection followed by appropriate statistical analyses was selected to study customers' behaviour and, consequently, judge the effectiveness and impact of used marketing tools. Three scenarios selected for this study covered different clients' segments: 1/overnight business guests (on the road), 2/weekend package guests (couples), and 3/team-building groups (small companies) and their specific needs. The behaviour of the respondents was monitored in two phases: browsing and deliberation phases. Our study reveals the specifics in Middle and East European consumers' behaviour in both phases, the differences in their priorities, their personal filters used, specifics of their decision-making process, etc., compared with Noone &amp; Robson studies from 2014 and 2016 on US customers. From the methodological point of view, the study reveals the importance of so-called scenarios since it clearly shows that preferences during the browsing phase (e.g. photos of hotels, rooms, bathrooms, its environment, surrounding landscape, etc.) depend on the simulated life situation. The differences in both groups of clients' behaviour and especially in their decision-making process are discussed in the conclusions.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Determining the Role of Hotel Attributes in Building Customer Loyalty Using Importance–Performance Analysis: A Study in the Context of Tourist Nationalities 2021-04-22T08:42:15+02:00 Engin Üngüren Salih Tellioglu Nazlı Türker <p>Identifying the importance and satisfaction of hotel attributes in the eyes of tourists and their role in building customer loyalty is critical for improving the service quality. Therefore, in our study, customers' importance and performance perceptions regarding the services offered by accommodation businesses were examined in terms of customers’ nationalities. Our research has two main objectives. The first objective is to determine the importance and performance perceptions of the services provided by the hotels according to the nationalities of the customers using the using importance-performance analysis (IPA) model and to compare the perceptions of importance-performance according to nationality. The second aim is to determine the effect of satisfaction perceptions regarding hotel services on customer loyalty according to customer nationality. The research was designed as a survey-based quantitative research methodology. Convenience sampling was used, which is a non-random sampling method. Data were obtained from 1153 German, Russian, and Turkish tourists accommodating in five-star hotels in Alanya, Turkey. A gap analysis was conducted using pairwise t-tests to evaluate whether the importance and performance perceptions of the participants differed. IPA was conducted with attributes being graphically displayed on the I-P grids. The impact of hotel service satisfaction on customer loyalty was investigated using regression analysis. The research findings reveal that customers' performance perceptions and services attach importance to differ significantly by nationality. And also, it was concluded that satisfaction with the services provided in accommodation businesses has a significant effect on customer loyalty and that this effect differs in customer groups. Determining satisfaction factors affecting customer loyalty according to customer characteristics make a significant contribution to service quality improvement. In this context, the research results provide practical and theoretical contributions to how customer satisfaction and customer loyalty can be improved according to market groups.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Changing Trends of Shopping Habits and Tourism During the Second Wave of COVID-19 – International Comparison 2021-05-24T11:03:47+02:00 Renáta Machová Enikő Korcsmáros Monika Esseová Roland Marča <p>Over the last year, many things have changed in every field as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the rapid spread of the coronavirus, the heads of states and governments had to respond to the virus forthwith. As government restrictions have been introduced, people started to reconsider their decisions in terms of consumption and saving. The closures affected many areas that changed people's daily lives. As a result, new trends have appeared, for instance, in the tourism field and people's shopping habits. The data were collected among Slovak and Hungarian citizens through surveys as a quantitative method. Nonparametric Pearson's chi-square test, Spearman's rho correlation test, and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to analyze six formulated hypotheses. For the latter, it was necessary to carry out normality tests. The main purpose of this article is to give an international comparison in questions whether people will prefer domestic tourism over foreign one if people prefer domestic traders' products or foreign traders' products, whether the respondents buy online more frequently due to the pandemic, if they spend less on leisure travel and whether they think that the interest in e-commerce continues to grow. As a result of the research, it can be declared that both Slovak and Hungarian people traders prefer buying domestic traders' products instead of foreign traders' ones, while the Hungarian respondents shop online more frequently. The results pointed out that Slovak respondents will prefer domestic tourism over foreign tourism.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services A The Mediating Role of Brand Love in the Relationship Between Consumer-Based Brand Equity and Brand Loyalty: a Research on Starbucks 2021-05-03T11:34:45+02:00 Aylin Sinem Polat Burçin Cevdet Çetinsöz <p>The present study aims to determine the mediating role of brand love in the relationship between CBBE and brand loyalty. The study makes an analysis of CBBE, brand loyalty, and brand love related to Starbucks – a global coffee house and roastery catering concept. The study population comprises customers of the Starbucks enterprises operating in the city of Mersin, Turkey, and adopts a convenience sampling method. During the data collection process, 384 customers of Starbucks stores within Mersin who were over 18 years of age were surveyed. The dependent variables of the study are "brand loyalty" and "brand love," whereas the independent variable is "CBBE". The hypotheses developed in the research model were tested through structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on the study findings, it was concluded that brand love, as well as the dimensions of CBBE of "Service Quality: Physical Quality SQ:PQ" and "Lifestyle-Congruence LC", had full mediation with brand loyalty, while "Service Quality: Staff Behavior SQ:SB", "Ideal Self-Congruence IS-C" and "Brand Identification BI" had no such mediating effect on brand loyalty. In the study, the mediating role of brand love in terms of the impact of CBBE in the service industry on brand loyalty has been examined for the first time. The research findings show that a strong bond will be established with the target audience through compatible and parallel strategies that will be implemented by the managers on the SQ:PQ and LC dimensions of CBBE and this situation will increase loyalty to the brand. As a result of the consumers' strong emotions and their increasing loyalty towards the brand, this situation will lead the businesses in the service industry to protect their market share along with having a positive impact on their sustainable competition and profitability.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Identification of Uncertainty Factors in the Consumer Behaviour of the New Generation of Customers at the E-commerce Level 2021-05-09T11:00:59+02:00 Jakub Horvath Beata Gavurova Radovan Bacik Richard Fedorko <p>Even though two decades have passed since the introduction of e-commerce in the B2C model, the uncertainty posed by the online environment makes many consumers reluctant to engage in online commerce. The buyer's behaviour is inherently uncertain, given that the buyer's decisions have consequences that cannot be fully predicted. In the relationship between the buyer and the seller, the perceived uncertainty is defined as the extent to which the buyer cannot accurately predict the outcome of the transaction due to factors related to the seller and the product. This paper deals with the uncertainty of the new generation of customers in the process of electronic commerce. Based on the analysis of previous research in the field of perception of and understanding of uncertainty in online transactions, the aim of this paper is to identify the sources of perceived uncertainty of Generation Y when shopping online. Research in this area was carried out using the method of the main components, based on which five factors related to uncertainty and concerns in the process of electronic commerce were extracted. The paper identifies the main factors of uncertainty perceived by customers and also verifies the correlation between these factors and the intention of the Millennials to buy. The subject matter is relevant and applicable both to the area of products but also to the area of services in the field of tourism and hospitality.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty in the Services Sector 2021-05-03T11:34:00+02:00 Muhammad Aftab Khan Muhammad Yasir Muhammad Asad Khan <p>The current research intends to examine the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), customer satisfaction, and customer trust on customer loyalty in the services sector of Pakistan. This research is quantitative in nature and utilized a survey method for collecting data. Moreover, the population of this study is those individuals who are using Telecom services in Pakistan. This research used a convenient sampling technique. The completed and usable questionnaires were 212. Moreover, SPSS software was utilized for data analysis. For instance, frequencies, standard deviation, and mean for each understudy variables were analysed using SPSS software. In addition, this research also conducted correlation and regression analysis. Results show that a (i) positive and significant association exists between corporate social responsibility and customer satisfaction, (ii) positive and significant relationship exists between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, (iii) positive and significant association exists between customer trust and customer loyalty. Hence, the findings of this research significantly contribute towards the existing body of knowledge related to the concept of CSR, customer's satisfaction, trust, and loyalty. Thus, offering essential implications for policymakers, specifically for the Telecom sector of Pakistan. Finally, research limitations and suggestions for further studies are also highlighted.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Evaluating Business Performance and Efficiency in the Medical Tourism: A Multi-criteria Approach 2021-05-04T22:34:29+02:00 Veronika Čabinová Peter Gallo Petra Pártlová Jan Dobrovic Milan Stoch <p>Measuring the performance and efficiency of the tourism enterprises is essential regarding the current pandemic situation. In such a context, improving their financial situation and competitive position also depend on the use of innovative multi-criteria evaluation models. The paper's main objective is to propose the newly designed Performance &amp; Efficiency model (P&amp;E model) for Slovak spa enterprises. Its structure consists of three dimensions – P&amp;E_I, P&amp;E_II, P&amp;E_III. The application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis validates 34 key performance ratios reflecting the financial situation of enterprises within the P&amp;E_I. In case of P&amp;E_II, the development of value-added dynamics is measured by using the Economic Value Added<sub> Momentum</sub>. Using the Data Envelopment Analysis, the level of enterprise efficiency is quantified (P&amp;E_III). The partial results of the dimensions are transformed using min-max normalization to the overall score ranging from 0 to 3. Based on the results, a rating scale of all enterprises is carried out, and both their partial and overall positions are assessed through benchmarking. During the research (2013 – 2018), the best results are achieved for SE03 (Spa Bojnice, Inc.), SE21 (Specialised Spa Institute Marína, s.e.), and SE18 (Spa Horný Smokovec, Ltd.). The worst-rated spa enterprises include SE14 (Natural Iodine Spa Číž, Inc.), SE09 (Spa Sliač, Inc.), and SE19 (Pieniny Resort, Ltd.). The proposed P&amp;E model is easily applicable to other tourism enterprises. The research as carried out enables deepening of knowledge concerning the multi-criteria evaluation and management concepts and helps enterprises overcome current unfavorable situations.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services Investigation of the Effect of Restaurant Atmosphere on Behavioral Intention 2021-03-21T11:47:37+01:00 Üzeyir Kement Sinan Çavuşoğlu Aziz Bükey Murat Göral Ahmet Uslu <p>The present study aims to examine the effect of restaurant atmosphere on behavioral intention. The study sample group consists of 412 guests visiting the à la carte restaurants residing in Bodrum destination. The questionnaire was applied to restaurant customers between June-December 2018. The convenience sampling method was used within the scope of the research. SPSS and AMOS statistical programs were utilized to calculate the validity and reliability of the questionnaire and test the hypotheses. When the study results are examined, it can be noted that the spatial layout &amp; employee factor and view from the window had a positive effect on the revisit intention, word-of-mouth intention, and willingness to pay more. Furthermore, it was determined that the ambiance affected the willingness to pay more positively. Nonetheless, it has been identified that there was no statistically significant effect of the ambiance and facility aesthetics on the revisit intention and word-of-mouth intention. Finally, it was figured out that facility aesthetics did not statistically significantly affect willingness to pay more.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tourism and Services